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# The curriculum for maths in Year 4

Years 3 and 4 (lower Key Stage 2) share similar curriculum targets.

In lower Key Stage 2, the principal focus of maths teaching is to ensure that pupils become increasingly fluent with whole numbers and the four operations, including number facts and the concept of place value. This should ensure that pupils develop efficient written and mental methods and perform calculations accurately with increasingly large whole numbers.

At this stage, pupils should develop their ability to solve a range of problems, including with simple fractions and decimal place value. Pupils will also draw with increasing accuracy and develop mathematical reasoning so they can analyse shapes and their properties, and confidently describe the relationships between them. It should ensure that they can accurately use measuring instruments and make connections between measure and number.

By the end of Year 4, pupils should have memorised their times tables up to and including the 12 times table, and they will show precision and fluency in their work. Pupils should read and spell mathematical vocabulary correctly and confidently, using their growing word reading knowledge and their knowledge of spelling.

We’ve outlined England’s curriculum for maths in Year 4 below. Follow the links for help and activities:

### Children will learn to:

• count in multiples of 6, 7, 9, 25 and 1000
• find 1000 more or less than a given number
• count backwards through zero to include negative numbers
• recognise the place value of each digit in a four-digit number (thousands, hundreds, tens, and ones)
• order and compare numbers beyond 1000
• identify, represent and estimate numbers using different representations
• round any number to the nearest 10, 100 or 1000
• solve number and practical problems that involve all of the above and with increasingly large positive numbers
• read Roman numerals to 100 (I to C) and know that over time, the numeral system changed to include the concept of zero and place value.

You’ll find a more detailed guide to spelling, advice on how to help your child at home, and free activities on our Number & place value in Year 4 page.

### Children will learn to:

• add and subtract numbers with up to 4 digits using the formal written methods of columnar addition and subtraction where appropriate
• estimate and use inverse operations to check answers to a calculation
• solve addition and subtraction two-step problems in contexts, deciding which operations and methods to use and why.

You’ll find a more detailed guide to handwriting, advice on how to help your child at home, and free activities on our Addition & subtraction in Year 4 page.

### Children will learn to:

• recall multiplication and division facts for multiplication tables up to 12 × 12
• use place value, known and derived facts to multiply and divide mentally, including: multiplying by 0 and 1; dividing by 1; multiplying together three numbers
• recognise and use factor pairs and commutativity in mental calculations
• multiply two-digit and three-digit numbers by a one-digit number using formal written layout
• solve problems involving multiplying and adding, including using the distributive law to multiply two digit numbers by one digit, integer scaling problems and harder correspondence problems such as n objects are connected to m objects.

You’ll find a more detailed guide to grammar and punctuation, advice on how to help your child at home, and free activities on our Multiplication & division in Year 4 page.

### Children will learn to:

• recognise and show, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions
• count up and down in hundredths; recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by one hundred and dividing tenths by ten.
• solve problems involving increasingly harder fractions to calculate quantities, and fractions to divide quantities, including non-unit fractions where the answer is a whole number
• add and subtract fractions with the same denominator
• recognise and write decimal equivalents of any number of tenths or hundredths
• recognise and write decimal equivalents to , ,
• find the effect of dividing a one- or two-digit number by 10 and 100, identifying the value of the digits in the answer as ones, tenths and hundredths
• round decimals with one decimal place to the nearest whole number
• compare numbers with the same number of decimal places up to two decimal places
• solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to two decimal places.

You’ll find a more detailed guide to fractions, advice on how to help your child at home, and free activities on our Fractions in Year 4 page.

### Children will learn to:

• compare and classify geometric shapes, including quadrilaterals and triangles, based on their properties and sizes
• identify acute and obtuse angles and compare and order angles up to two right angles by size
• identify lines of symmetry in 2-D shapes presented in different orientations
• complete a simple symmetric figure with respect to a specific line of symmetry.

You’ll find a more detailed guide to geometry, advice on how to help your child at home, and free activities on our Geometry in Year 4 page.

### Children will learn to:

• describe positions on a 2D grid as coordinates in the first quadrant
• describe movements between positions as translations of a given unit to the left/right and up/down
• plot specified points and draw sides to complete a given polygon.

You’ll find a more detailed guide to geometry, advice on how to help your child at home, and free activities on our Geometry in Year 4 page.

### Children will learn to:

• Convert between different units of measure (for example, kilometre to metre; hour to minute)
• measure and calculate the perimeter of a rectilinear figure (including squares) in centimetres and metres
• find the area of rectilinear shapes by counting squares
• estimate, compare and calculate different measures, including money in pounds and pence

You’ll find a more detailed guide to measurement, advice on how to help your child at home, and free activities on our Measurement in Year 4 page.

### Children will learn to:

• interpret and present discrete and continuous data using appropriate graphical methods, including bar charts and time graphs.
• solve comparison, sum and difference problems using information presented in bar charts, pictograms, tables and other graphs.  